University of Otago.Department of Physiology.Department of Physiology.

Physiology TV

An overview of Physiology at the University of Otago.

News

13th November, 2017

Otago study could mean hope for infertile couples

Crucial new information about how the brain controls fertility has been unlocked by University of Otago researchers, with their findings just published in prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

13th November, 2017

Phenomenal success for Physiology researchers in latest Marsden funding round

Four 3-year project grants were awarded to Department of Physiology researchers in this year’s Marsden Fund - totalling over $3.8M.

25th October, 2017

Charlotte Steel, BSc (Hons) NEUR student in the Department has gained a Cambridge Rutherford Memorial PhD Scholarship

Our congratulations to Charlotte who is currently completing a BSc (Hons) degree in Neuroscience in the Department of Physiology with supervisor Assoc Prof Phil Sheard.

8th September, 2017

PhD student wins two awards at Queenstown Research Week

Congratulations to Mauro Silva, PhD student in the Department of Physiology. Mauro is supervised by Dr Rebecca Campbell.

8th September, 2017

Triennial Medal awarded to Professor Colin Brown

Congratulations to Colin who as been chosen by the Physiological Society of NZ (PSNZ) to be the recipient of the NZ Triennial Medal.

Next Event

20th November, 2017

Dr Jenny Clarkson (Department of Physiology)

 
PhD Programme.

Undergraduates

Do you want to know more about how the human body works? Did you enjoy your HUBS courses?

A degree in physiology takes your knowledge of how our neural, cardiovascular and epithelial systems work to a higher level.

Physiology is the study of how organisms function and survive in a changing environment. At the University of Otago, the BSc in Physiology focuses primarily on the functions of the human body.

Two degrees and majors allow you to continue your study of physiology.

Students study a wide range of interesting topics, including how single cells transport molecules across their cell membranes, how brain cells communicate with one another and how whole animals regulate cardiovascular/respiratory function in response to exercise and altitude. Course material is taught through a mixture of lectures, practical laboratories, small group tutorials and computer-assisted and self-directed study.

Course of Study

If you have passed HUBS191, HUBS 192 and two of CELS191(or 199), CHEM191, PHSI191 or BCHM192 then you are ready to enrol in our second year physiology papers: PHSL231, PHSL232 and PHSL233. These three papers are required for both the physiology and functional human biology majors. In semester 1 the only physiology second year paper you can enrol in is PHSL231, therefore we recommend that you enrol in 2 or 3 other second year papers that support the study of physiology, and to give you a plan B in case you decide not to major in physiology. Papers from anatomy, pharmacology, biochemistry, genetics, microbiology work well with physiology, however you can take papers from any subject - not necessarily science papers. For a FUHB major there is a selection of papers from which you can choose.

To complete your degree you need to have passed papers with a total point value of 360 points (20 papers). Four of these papers must be your specialised 300-level papers in physiology. A further six papers must be 200- or 300-level papers, and the remaining ten papers can be 100-level or above. As a BSc or BBiomedSc student you can take 5 non-science papers and have these count towards your degree.

We suggest you plan out your proposed degree before you enrol through eVision. If you are a bit confused or have questions of any kind please contact your physiology course adviser: Fiona McDonald (fiona.mcdonald@otago.ac.nz) Finally, remember that you can change your course and major during your degree, however we recommend that you contact a course adviser to discuss options.

Handbooks

A Bachelor of Science (BSc) majoring in physiology (PHSL) gives you indepth physiology study across the breadth of physiology.

A Bachelor of Biomedical Sciences majoring in Functional Human Biology allows you to focus on physiology but also include a variety of other biomedical science papers in your degree to give you a wider understanding of the biomedical sciences.

Download handbooks for Physiology undergraduate courses here:

BSc Undergraduate
BBiomedSc in Functional Human Biology

Papers

To major in Physiology in a Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree, you need to pass the following papers:

Students must take all compulsory papers and any two of the optional papers.

Compulsory

HUBS191: Human Body Systems 1
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

HUBS192: Human Body Systems 2
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

Optional

BIOC192: Foundations of Biochemistry
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

CELS191: Cell and Molecular Biology
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

CHEM191: The Chemical Basis of Biology and Human Health
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

PHSI191: Biological Physics
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

Students must complete all compulsory papers.

Compulsory

PHSL231: Neurophysiology
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL232: Cardiovascular & Respiratory Physiology
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL233: Cellular, Gastrointestinal & Renal Physiology
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

Students must complete any four of the following compulsory papers, plus 162 further points (must include 54 points at 200-level or above). Up to 90 points may be taken from outside Science.

Compulsory

PHSL341: Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiology I
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL342: Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiol II
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL343: Cellular & Epithelial Physiology
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL344: Cardiovascular Physiology
Semester Two (18 points) - More course information...

PHSL345: Physiological Aspects of Health and Disease
Semester One (18 points) - More course information...

Compulsory

Associated Courses

Neuroscience
More course information...

Physiology for Health Sciences
Dentistry DENT262; Medical Laboratory Sciences MELS251; Pharmacy PHCY251; Human Nutrition PHSL251; Physiotherapy PHTY251 - More course information...

Physiology Teaching in the Medical (MBChB) Course
More course information...

HUBS191: Human Body Systems 1

Semester One (18 points)

HUBS191: Human Body Systems 1

HUBS 191 provides an introduction to the structure and function of the musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine and immune systems of the human body. The course includes 50 lectures, including four revision and integration lectures. Laboratory classes are designed to reinforce lecture material and students attend a laboratory once in a two-week cycle. Four guided learning modules (GLM) reinforce and extend lecture material.

Assessment includes laboratory exit tests, on-line tests on the GLM material and two terms tests consisting of multiple choice questions. The final examination runs for three hours and consists of three sections: section one - multiple choice questions; section two - short answer questions based on a case study, and; section three - four mini-essay questions. Students must attain at least 40% in the final exam to pass the course as a whole. All lecture, laboratory and GLM material is examinable.

Academic Course Convenor:Professor David Grattan, Department of Anatomy
Anatomy Modules Convenor: Dr Hallie Buckley, Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology
Physiology Modules Convenor: Assoc Prof Fiona McDonald, Department of Physiology

HUBS192: Human Body Systems 2

Semester Two (18 points)

HUBS192: Human Body Systems 2

HUBS 192 provides an introduction to the structure and function of the human cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal/urinary and reproductive systems including organ development.
HUBS 191 is a prerequisite for HUBS 192.
The course includes 51 lectures, including three revision and integration lectures. Laboratory classes are designed to reinforce lecture material and students attend a laboratory once in a two week cycle. Three guided learning modules (GLM) also reinforce and extend lecture material.
Assessment includes laboratory exit tests, on-line tests for the GLMs and two terms tests consisting of multiple choice questions. The final examination runs for three hours and consists of three sections: section 1 - multiple choice questions; section two - short answer questions based on a case study, and; section three - five mini-essay questions. Students must attain at least 40% in the final exam to pass the course as a whole. All lecture, laboratory and GLM material is examinable.

Academic Course Convener: Dr Steven Condliffe, Department of Physiology
Anatomy Modules Convener: Dr Ruth Napper, Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology
Physiology Modules Convener: Dr Steven Condliffe, Department of Physiology

BIOC192: Foundations of Biochemistry

Semester Two (18 points)

An introduction to the structure and function of proteins as essential elements of life processes; principles of enzymology; introductory bioenergetics; conservation of the energy of food for body processes; digestion and catabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates; terminal pathways of oxidation, anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, mitochondrial metabolism; energy storage and utilisation; the molecular basis of disease; illustrative topics in metabolism.
There are four lectures each week and one three-hour laboratory class every two weeks.
Assessment consists of online tests based on the laboratory material, a multiple-choice terms test and a short-answer question final exam. There are also a variety of formative assessments in the paper that do not count towards the final grade, but are designed to help with your learning.

Course Coordinator: Tony Zaharic, Department of Biochemistry

CELS191: Cell and Molecular Biology

Semester One (18 points)

An introduction to the biology of cells; fundamentals of molecular biology; organismal and molecular genetics; human genetic variation; diversity and biology of microorganisms; microbial virulence and disease processes.
There are four lectures each week, and one three-hour laboratory class every two weeks.
Assessment consists of internal assessment (terms test and online quizzes related to laboratories and Guided Learning Modules) and a final exam.

Course Coordinator: Dr Lisa Russell, Department of Zoology

CHEM191: The Chemical Basis of Biology and Human Health

Semester One (18 points)

An introduction to the concepts of chemistry underlying important processes in biology and human health, including energetics, kinetics, equilibria and solubility, properties of water and solutions, acids, bases, complexation and electron transfer, mechanisms of organic reactions and properties of amino acids and carbohydrates.
There are three lectures each week, and one three-hour laboratory class every two weeks. There will also be six "hot-topic" lectures and problem solving sessions in addition to the regular lectures.
Assessment consists of a three-hour written examination at the end of the semester, laboratory exit tests and one one-hour terms test. The terms requirement for CHEM191 is satisfactory attendance and performance in the laboratory course and terms test.
Note: CHEM191 is also available at summer school only for students who have passed their internal assessment in the Semester One CHEM191 course but failed the paper overall.

Course Coordinator: Dr David McMorran, Department of Chemistry

PHSI191: Biological Physics

Semester One (18 points)

Foundations of physics for the health sciences including mechanics, properties of fluids and solids, thermodynamics, optics, electrostatics and DC circuits, and radiation and health.
Note: PHSI191 may be taken at summer school only by students who passed the laboratory assessment for PHSL191, but failed the paper overall.

Course Coordinator: Dr Terry Scott, Department of Physics

PHSL231: Neurophysiology

Semester One (18 points)

This paper explores the mechanisms by which the nervous system integrates sensory information from the environment and coordinates the body's responses at whole organism, cellular and molecular levels.

Lectures are weekly on Monday and Tuesday, and fortnightly on Thursday. There is one 3-hour laboratory per fortnight.

Assessment consists of two evening 1-hour tests on material from lectures and labs, and a final exam of 3 hours duration. Terms requirement is satisfactory attendance at both terms tests and satisfactory attendance and active participation in all laboratory classes.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks for BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Academic staff teaching into PHSL231 in 2017 are:

Dr Phil Heyward (Course Convener)

Assoc Prof Fiona McDonald

Prof Colin Brown

Dr Phil Heyward

Assoc Prof Phil Sheard

Dr Alex Tups

PHSL232: Cardiovascular & Respiratory Physiology

Semester Two (18 points)

This paper explores cardiovascular and respiratory function and integration. Examples are taken from health (e.g., exercise, high altitude) and disease states (e.g., cardiovascular or lung disease) to illustrate the principles of function and integration.

Lectures are weekly on Monday and Tuesday, and fortnightly on Wednesday. There is one 3-hour laboratory per fortnight.

Assessment consists of two evening 1-hour tests on material from lectures and labs, and a final exam of 3 hours duration. Terms requirement is satisfactory attendance at both terms tests and satisfactory attendance and active participation in all laboratory classes.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Course Coordinator: Dr Regis Lamberts

Academic staff teaching the PHSL232 paper in 2017:

Assoc Prof Pat Cragg

Prof Alison Heather

Assoc Prof Rajesh Katare

Dr Regis Lamberts

PHSL233: Cellular, Gastrointestinal & Renal Physiology

Semester Two (18 points)

In this paper the epithelial and integrative functions of the gastrointestinal and renal systems of the human body will be examined at the cellular and molecular levels. Examples of pathophysiological conditions will be highlighted.

Lectures are weekly on Thursday and Friday, and fortnightly on Wednesday. There is one 3-hour laboratory per fortnight.

Assessment consists of two evening 1-hour tests on material from lectures and labs, and a final exam of 3 hours duration. Terms requirement is satisfactory attendance at both terms tests and satisfactory attendance and active participation in all laboratory classes.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Course Coordinator: Dr Pete Jones

Academic staff teaching the PHSL233 paper in 2017:
Dr Andrew Bahn

Dr Martin Fronius

Dr Pete Jones

Assoc Prof Fiona McDonald

PHSL341: Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiology I

Semester One (18 points)


In this course we use current biomedical neuroscience research findings, and lab class research projects to understand how brain structure and function change during development and with advancing age, how activity in assemblies of neurons in motor cortex code movement direction for programming of future movements, and how the brain perceives sensory information.



There are two lectures per week, and two 4-hour laboratories every second week (alternating with PHSL 342). Assessment consists of internal assessment (a written research proposal, a written research report, and an oral or poster presentation of laboratory class work) and a 3-hour final essay-style exam. A mark of at least 45% in the final exam must be attained to pass the paper as a whole. For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB, available to download.

Course Convener: Dr Alexander Tups

Academic staff teaching into PHSL341 in 2018 are:


Assoc Prof Ruth Empson: The cerebellum is critical for the timing of our movements based upon integration of sensory inputs to guide motor outputs; it is also a beautiful repeating module brain structure that has fascinated Neuroscientists for hundreds of years

In this module you will learn about how the cerebellar circuitry is “wired up” and using the literature you will analyse how the synapses (or connections) in this wiring diagram work. We will pay particular attention to how calcium homeostasis mechanisms contribute to the refinement of synapse function and firing behaviour of the principle type of cerebellar output neuron, the mysterious and beautiful Purkinje neuron.

In the lab you will find ways to study your own cerebellar learning using the phenomenon of motor adaptation; you will design controlled experiments to measure your motor learning and devise ways to perturb your sensory environment and assess how this influences the speed and accuracy of your motor behaviour.

For information about research in the Empson lab see: http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/peoplelab.php?lab=11

Dr Phil heyward: In this module we address how information is processed in specific brain circuits and networks to produce our perception (and sometimes misperception) of the world. We will consider how the electrophysiology of neurones underlies normal brain function, and how altered neurophysiology can relate to disease. For more information about research in the Heyward lab see: http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/people.php?section=16

Assoc Prof Phil Sheard: The human brain is the most complex object in the known universe. How is it made? We will discuss the problems facing the immature developing nervous system, and the primary mechanisms by which those problems are overcome. Why does brain function change in advancing age? We will look at a very important and stable synapse, the neuromuscular junction, and ask how and why the synapse changes in old age after a lifetime of structural and functional stability.

For more information about research in the Sheard lab see: http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/peoplelab.php?lab=22

PHSL342: Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiol II

Semester One (18 points)


This paper is for those who are curious about the way in which the essential elements of the nervous system work. Based on current biomedical research from leading researchers, the course provides a theoretical and experimental basis to understand how the hypothalamus controls bodyweight and glucose homeostasis, fertility and pregnancy.


There are two lectures per week, and two 4-hour laboratories every second week (alternating with PHSL 341). Assessment consists of internal assessment (a written research proposal, a written research report, and an oral or poster presentation of laboratory class work) and a 3-hour final essay-style exam. A mark of at least 45% in the final exam must be attained to pass the paper as a whole. For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB, available to download.

Course Convener: Dr Alexander Tups

Academic staff teaching into PHSL342 in 2018 are:


Professor Colin Brown: This module will focus on the experimental evidence that explains how hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin neurons integrate pregnancy signals to mount the appropriate hormonal response required for a successful pregnancy; vasopressin increases water retention during pregnancy to ensure adequate blood supply to the developing baby while oxytocin secretion causes contraction of the uterus for delivery. See http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/peoplelab.php?lab=5 for more information about the Brown lab research.

Dr Rebecca Campbell: This module examines the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons sit at the top of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that drives fertility in all mammalian species. These neurons provide different output to successfully regulate male and female fertility, but how is this achieved? This unit will allow you to investigate what aspects of the central regulation of fertility are different between the sexes. Students will have the opportunity to learn about immunofluorescent labelling and imaging in transgenic mouse brain tissue in order to ask questions about which characteristics or populations of cells in the brain mediate sex differences in the regulation of reproductive function. See http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/peoplelab.php?lab=7 for more information about the Campbell lab.

Dr Alex Tups This module examines whether the neuroendocrine control of body weight and glucose homeostasis might be disrupted by jetlag. The hormones leptin and insulin regulate body weight and glucose homeostasis by acting on neurons in the hypothalamus. In an animal model we will mimic a jetlag-like scenario and explore whether this treatment will impair the integration of the leptin or insulin signal in the hypothalamus. This module seeks to gain mechanistical insights into the close relationship of the circadian clock and the central regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. See http://phsl.otago.ac.nz/peoplelab.php?lab=35 for more information about the Tups lab research.

PHSL343: Cellular & Epithelial Physiology

Semester Two (18 points)

This paper focuses on the cellular and molecular basis of epithelial transport with a particular emphasis on the molecular and cellular basis of selected epithelial diseases and how these diseases affect epithelial function. There are two lectures per week and two 4-hour laboratories on alternate weeks (alternating with PHSL344).

Assessment consists of internal assessment (including the presentation of a research poster and a written research proposal) and a 3-hour final exam.

A mark of at least 45% in the final exam must be attained to pass the paper as a whole.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Academic Staff Teaching in PHSL343 in 2017:


Dr Andrew Bahn (Course Convener)

Assoc Prof Grant Butt

Assoc Prof Fiona McDonald

PHSL344: Cardiovascular Physiology

Semester Two (18 points)

This paper focuses on cardiovascular function in disease and vascular control and dysfunction in skeletal muscle.

There are two lectures per week and two 4-hour laboratories on alternate weeks (alternating with PHSL343).

Assessment consists of internal assessment (including the presentation of a research poster and a written research proposal) and a 3-hour final exam.

A mark of at least 45% in the final exam must be attained to pass the paper as a whole.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Course Convener: Assoc Prof Rajesh Katare

Academic Staff lecturing in PHSL344 in 2017:


Dr Jeff Erickson

Dr Pete Jones

Assoc Prof Rajesh Katare

Dr Regis Lamberts

PHSL345: Physiological Aspects of Health and Disease

Semester One (18 points)

The application of knowledge about human molecular, cellular and systems physiology to the understanding of both normal bodily adaptations to extreme situations, and the dysfunctions underlying specific diseases.

There are two lectures per week and one 4-hour laboratory per week.
Assessment consists of internal assessment (including the presentation of a research poster, and a written research proposal) and a 3-hour final exam.

A mark of at least 45% in the final exam must be attained to pass the paper as a whole.

For further detail please refer to the undergraduate handbooks BSc PHSL or BBiomedSc FUHB available to download.

Academics lecturing in PHSL345 in 2017:

Dr Kirk Hamilton (Course Convener)

Professor Alison Heather

Dr Martin Fronius

Neuroscience

Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. It is an academic discipline, (independent of Physiology) in which our second and third year neurophysiology papers form an important backbone to the Neuroscience degree. Successful completion of PHSL231 - Neurophysiology (Course convener Assoc Prof Fiona McDonald) is a requirement for the Neuroscience degree. PHSL231 is an 18-point first semester paper exploring the mechanisms by which the nervous system integrates sensory information from the environment and co-ordinates the body's responses at whole organism, cellular and molecular levels. At 300-level our two 18-point first semester Neurophysiology papers are among a short list of Neuroscience papers from which Neuroscience majors must choose. These are Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiology I (PHSL341 - Dr Phil Heyward) and Molecular, Cellular & Integrative Neurophysiology II (PHSL342 - Assoc Prof Colin Brown). Neuroscience students enrolled in these papers are not identified separately and are integrated with students taking the papers as part of other degrees. Because the Neuroscience degree incorporates papers contributed to by several departments, the course structure is slightly more open and is potentially more flexible than subjects run within a single Department. For this reason, students are advised to carefully read the Neuroscience course handbook and to consult with the Director of Neuroscience (Assoc Prof Phil Sheard, Department of Physiology) early in their course and degree planning. Further neuroscience information. For course advice or if you have any questions please email neuroscience@otago.ac.nz

Physiology for Health Sciences

Dentistry DENT262; Medical Laboratory Sciences MELS251; Pharmacy PHCY251; Human Nutrition PHSL251; Physiotherapy PHTY251

This 21-point paper covers the function of the major organ systems of the body. It serves the Health Sciences (Dentistry, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Medical Laboratory Sciences) and is also available in the Consumer and Applied Sciences schedule to students majoring in Human Nutrition. It does not meet the prerequisites for further advancement in Physiology and is restricted against other 200-level Physiology papers.

PHSL251 runs in first semester and includes 52 lectures and 5 three-hour practicals. Lecture topics include: Body composition, nerve, muscle, somatic and special senses, pain, higher brain functions, endocrinology, cardiovascular system, respiration, kidney, gastrointestinal system, exercise, and temperature regulation. Laboratory classes are based on case presentations and experiments investigating cell physiology, nerve, muscle, cardiac cycle, respiration, kidney & gastrointestinal (some variation between courses). Students are given study topics and are expected to prepare material in their own time before coming to the laboratory. In all cases, topics build upon and require prior knowledge of material taught in HUBS 191 & 192.

Assessment includes 2 one-hour multichoice progress tests during the semester, a similar multichoice test during the final examination timeslot, and a two-hour short-notes written examination. Students must pass the short notes component of the assessment to pass the paper as a whole. All topics and modules are examined, including case and experiment-based material from lab classes.

Course Convenor: Professor Brian Hyland

Physiology Teaching in the Medical (MBChB) Course

Physiology is an important component of many of the modules making up the second and third years of the medical course. Extensive teaching input is provided for the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal modules in second year and the renal and nervous system modules in third year. In addition there are Physiology links and contributions to other components of the course such as Integrated Cases and Clinical Skills. Physiology staff are involved in teaching in all aspects of the medical course.

Teaching within these modules builds on the foundations developed in the first year HUBS courses with an emphasis on linking underlying science to pathophysiological and clinical problems. Learning is developed through lectures, practicals and case tutorials. The balance of these varies between modules but typically students have about five hours a week of physiology teaching. Practicals and tutorials are run in small groups and there are associated self-study and preparation tasks. Assessment is based on MCQ tests for each module and short notes questions in the integrated, case-based end of year examinations.

Convenor of Physiology components: Dr Matt Bevin Physiology Staff on the Medical Education Committee Yr 2 & 3: Dr Matt Bevin, Associate Professor Pat Cragg

Careers

Physiology forms the basis of many careers in a variety of industries and facilities such as medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy, veterinary science, teaching, ophthalmology, nursing, audiology, information technology, scientific engineering, research, governmental sector, tertiary sector, healthcare and laboratories.

Physiology careers.In addition to these options being taken by recent graduates, the increasing importance of the role of biotechnology in our society is rapidly creating new opportunities for physiologists in non-traditional career paths such as publishing companies (scientific writers), law firms (interpretation of forensic data or patent applications), public relations firms and consultancies (who need trained scientists to interpret technical information, and present it to clients/investors in a way they can understand).

If you can see yourself in any of these roles, a BSc major in Physiology or a BBiomedSc major in Functional Human Physiology can help get you there!

Having a Summer Research Scholarship opened up a lot more opportunities for me to explore my career potentials. I strongly recommend taking up this opportunity because it definitely gave me the confidence and skills essential for my future endeavors.

Aye Thaung - Summer Research Student 2010/2011