9th March, 2017
Anatomy and Physiology at Otago now in the World University Rankings!
Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Otago have ranked 24th in the world in the latest QS World University Rankings.
8th March, 2017
Key finding promises early detection of cardiovascular disease in diabetics
While in India to deliver the keynote address at JIPMER’s Karaikal's campus last week, Assoc Prof Rajesh Katare was interviewed by one of India’s leading newspapers, The Hindu.
3rd March, 2017
Physiology researcher awarded Lottery Health Research Project Grant
Congratulations to Associate Professor Rajesh Katare who was awarded a research project grant of $88,246 over two years.
23rd February, 2017
Cycling event raises funds for heart research
The Department of Physiology has once again raised significant funds for a charity to its heart.
20th December, 2016
Physiology staff recognised in School of Biomedical Sciences Awards 2016
Three staff from the Department of Physiology received awards at the ceremony on 14th December.
27th March, 2017
Luke Worthington (Department of Physiology, Final MSc presentation)
The Department of Physiology was delighted to once again host a group of keen high school students for Hands On Science in January 2015.
Erin Cameron, Liam Farley and Andrew Barlow.
On the first day we got to know each other and talked about what the Department of Physiology does. The first experiment we took part in was to test our nervous system. This taught us that different areas in our body have different sensitivities. We did this by using probes to find receptive fields on our arms and fingers and we compared results. We then learnt about eyes and their structure, discovering our blind spots and discussing colour blindness and other eye problems.
Later, some students became subjects for our next experiment, the spinning chair. The objective of the spinning chair was to activate the semi-circular canals inside the inner ear and understand the mechanism that the body uses to balance. We used our knowledge of these mechanisms to produce some vestibular illusions, causing our subjects to perceive that they were falling forwards when they were really spinning horizontally.
On Tuesday we investigated nerves, muscles and reflexes. First we stimulated the ulnar nerve by placing stimulating electrodes on our elbow. These were connected to a device that produces electrical pulses. The electric pulses made our hands twitch uncontrollably and the twitching increased as we turned up the voltage and frequency of the electrical pulses.
We then measured the speed at which the electrical activity moved down our arms. We placed recording electrodes on our hands and connected these electrodes to a computer. Using the results recorded from an EMG (electromyogram) and some calculations we were able to figure out the conduction velocity along our ulnar nerves.
Finally, we were taught how to measure our muscle stretch reflex and our voluntary reflexes. We placed recording electrodes on our soleus muscle and connected these electrodes to a computer. We stimulated the stretch reflex by striking the Achilles tendon with the hammer, causing an automatic involuntary soleus contraction. We found that the voluntary movement was relatively slow compared with the stretch reflex. We interpreted that this difference was because the voluntary reflex contraction was initiated in the brain and relied on us concentrating and reacting quickly, whereas the stretch muscle reflex came from the spinal cord and was initiated independently of our conscious input.
The body relies on the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to the muscles and brain. On day three we examined several aspects of this system. We recorded an ECG (electrocardiogram), which showed us the electrical changes that occur during a cardiac cycle. From this we were able to calculate our resting heart rate. The average for the group was 74 beats per minute. We built on this by designing our own experiments to test the heart's response to physical and mental stress. I some cases the mental stress raised our heart rate as much as the physical stress!
We also looked at control of breathing and were surprised to discover that carbon dioxide is the main driving factor in restful breathing, not oxygen. We worked this out by measuring our alveolar gases after holding out breaths following normal breathing, a deep inspiration, and hyperventilation.
Hearing is something that is taken for granted on a daily basis. As part of our physiology course we got the opportunity to learn about the structure and function of the human ear, along with the fragility of it. A well-known fact is that the smallest bones in the human body can be found in the middle ear. As well as having the smallest bones it has the smallest muscles, making it easily damaged.
We also explored our sense of taste, which meant that we ate icecream and jellybeans! We discovered that warm icecream tastes sweeter than cold icecream because our sweet taste receptors are temperature sensitive. We tried to guess the flavour of jellybeans with and without a noseclip and found that we could only taste the sweetness with the noseclip on, so our more sophisticated perception of flavour must involve our sense of smell.
Sherry Malik, Ellie McDonald, Becky Payne, Shontal Norton, Kate van Dillen, Charlotte Western, David Spencer, Kataraina Harris, Sam Leary, Caleb Wilson, Stacy-Ria Te Kurapa King, Katie Knowles, Rebecca Brimble, Ali Page, Euan Dixon, Anmol Sandhu, Katie Read, Grace Boyle, Kalesita Pole, Sandy Su
A summer research project is an excellent way to get a taste for what scientific research is like. I would recommend it to anyone who is interested in carrying on with science beyond undergraduate level.